A. Neomar Evies, Ph.D

* University Teaching (Undergraduate): Facilitator of curricular units in the areas of: technology management, ICTs, applied computing, technology, administration, statistics, general management, Human Resources, Sports. Academic tutor and referee in different research works. Management of different eLearning tools.

* University teaching (Postgraduate): Facilitator of curricular units in the areas from: Management and ICTs. Tutor and referee in different research projects.

* Research: Accredited active researcher in the area of technology management with various finished research products. Research Field: Management Technology in business organizations. Speaker at different events and conferences National and international. Author of academic books and different articles scientific investigation.

* Management: Managerial positions and direction of work teams. Area coordinator technologies in different congresses, forums and scientific, academic and/or events sports at national and international level. Extensive experience designing and implementing technological projects, information systems, reengineering processes, projects feasible, model designs and organizational systems.

* Technology: Described below:

Psychological Training in Swimming – Ontomethodological Vision

From the Author: Ontomethodology is a philosophical term composed of 2 words: “Onto” which refers to ontology, which means ‘the study of being alive and existing’, and methodology, which are procedures to be executed.


Ontomethodological vision that swimming coaches have in relation to their athletes’ Mood.


Mood is a not very intense, diffuse, relatively long-lasting sensation, which is non-specific with respect to a possible object or antecedent and differs from temperament or personality, in that these do not usually have a temporal component. On the contrary, they are attitudes that can be considered permanent over time. There is scientific evidence at an international level that supports that mood directly influences athletes’ sports performance.

Therefore, a study was carried out to generate theoretical postulates on the ontomethodological vision from the perspective of swimming coaches on the evaluation of the mood of their athletes. To this end, the methodical route that was designed was framed in an interpretive episteme, with a design from the interpretive paradigm with a qualitative approach, from the Hermeneutic Phenomenological method.

Furthermore, for the analysis, exegesis and theoretical generation, the Continuous Comparative Method and Theoretical Sampling of the Grounded Theory were used. Finally, the final product is an Ontomethodological Construction from the Praxeology of Swimming Coaches, conceiving contributions: Ontological, Epistemological, Praxeological, and Teleological for the Evaluation of the Mood of athletes.


Currently, success in High-Performance Sports depends largely on how the direction of the sports preparation process is assumed, which is complex and requires systemic attention to its components: physical, technical, tactical, theoretical and psychological; as well as, it requires all the sciences to progress in all aspects.

In the same order of ideas, sports coach trainers are the leaders in this area because they are responsible for carrying out the training process, which is oriented towards the stimulation of the athlete’s physiological and psychological processes, thus favoring the development of the different physical and mental abilities and qualities of the individual, which aims to “promote and consolidate high performance.”

In sports, it is necessary to have a healthy relationship between the mind and the body. It is essential to obtain “optimal sports performance.” In that sense, any alteration in this balance usually creates a cause and effect relationship with mental health problems which will inexorably lead to an equivalent physical result. This is why sports psychology has grown rapidly in recent years, as well as the demand to better understand the mind-body relationship.

It is worth mentioning that there are common psychological disorders that influence sports performance, which are not limited to sports disciplines but are frequently the source of problems for athletes. For example: the emotional stress of competition can lead to a bigger problem. That is why the sports environment is the source of many disorders. Many athletes do not reach a high competitive level due to various psychological reasons.

Without a doubt, in competitive sports the mental focus is fundamental, specifically “the state of mind” acquires extraordinary value, because it has been studied and validated worldwide as it directly influences the athlete’s sports performance. In relation to this criteria, it can be noted that this state has a long duration and has a great influence on the rest of the psychic world and therefore, it differs from emotions since it is less specific, less intense, more lasting and less prone to be activated by a certain stimulus or event, as stated by Thayer (1989).

In this way, it is interesting for coaches to apply effective methods that allow describing and analyzing the emotional state of swimmers, which allow obtaining clues to interpret and make corrections in time based on the results desired. For this reason, it is essential to consider it in sports psychological preparation, which must be appropriately inserted into training plans.

However, the factors on which sports performance depends are numerous, sometimes difficult to determine, and with complex relationships between them. These determining factors of sports performance are physiological, psychological, and also social.

It should be noted that research in each of these fields has produced new avenues of intervention that have evolved the theory of sports training. However, there is still a long way to go. In recent years, new studies have appeared on the influence that emotional factors can have on sports performance and the possibilities of intervention to improve them.

This new line of research has been a cornerstone and source of motivation for the development of this study. In that sense, a single sport such as swimming has been chosen, specifically the youth category, which groups together young adolescents, who are somehow more susceptible to different variables and circumstances, in which emotions take on special relevance.

Materials and Methods

The Phenomenological-Hermeneutic method was used, which studies in a systematic, explicit, self-critical and intersubjective way, its object of study (our life experience) is systematic, because it uses the methods of questioning, reflecting, focusing, intuit, among others, put into practice specifically according to Van Manen (2003). In the same way, it builds the reflective character that provides the practical touch of pedagogy.

The same author, Van Manen (2003), points out that hermeneutic phenomenology tries to combine both terms in its methodology; That is, it is a “descriptive” and phenomenological methodology, since it considers the way in which things appear, letting things speak for themselves; and it is an “interpretive” or hermeneutic methodology because it affirms that there is no such thing as an uninterpreted phenomenon.

On the other hand, the number of people needed to be interviewed was established, because statistical representation was not considered; on the contrary, the objective was based on understanding the discourse about the object of analysis since the most relevant thing is the content and quality of the information obtained. Consequently, the key informants were two (2) coaches selected intentionally, following the profiles established in the development of the contextual framework of the research.

Likewise, participant observation was used as a different alternative to conventional forms of observation, as well as in-depth interviews. In addition, other means were used to collect information such as document reviews and notebooks, to complement the investigative process.

When carrying out the analysis, interpretation, and theoretical generation, Grounded Theory was used, in that sense, the information collection strategies of this technique are similar to those used in other research methods: interviews, observations, various documents, as well as audiovisual recordings, among others.

It is important to mention that the constant comparative method was used to generate theory, and it is used from the comparative and systematic analysis of the data; which facilitated the identification of concepts such as a progression that barely describes what is happening with the data obtained, constitutes a feature or aspect of open coding strategy, discovers the relationship between each other and throughout the incidents produced.

In the same order of ideas, this method was developed in the following phases:

  1. The comparison of the incidents, originating the preliminary categories.
  2. The relationship of the categories with their properties, which allows them to be refined.
  3. The delimitation of the theory resulting from saturation.
  4. The clarification of concepts that facilitate the writing of the theory.

Finally, the categorization process remained in permanent confrontation until the theoretical saturation, where it was ensured that constant comparison prioritized the said process. It is valid to mention that the categorization process went through the phase of subcategory formation, that is, the grouping of similar codes into concepts of a higher degree of abstraction.

Results and Observations

In recent years, a high percentage of the swimmers of High-Performing Teams, including all categories, do not maintain the marks established in precompetitive phases, when they compete in official events. For this reason, it is necessary for coaches to apply effective methodologies in the sports training process. In that sense, the emotional sphere is considered a fundamental axis, specifically the “mood construct” since it affects the way in which the athlete perceives and faces different situations in High Competition Sports, which is of extraordinary importance, as stated by the authors Arruza (1998), Devonport (2005) and López (2006).

It is important to highlight that sport activity is developed in conditions of social relations, which involves cooperation and communication. In this sense, the state of mind is linked to the activity carried out and the relationships of the subject, but it is also influenced by other factors such as: individual characteristics, personal history and activity, needs, motives, and aspirations. Therefore, the role of personality as a regulatory body must be considered.

Likewise, it can also be affected by unforeseen situations, and even by the body itself. Consequently, mood assessment, as a component of the emotional sphere, must be considered a complex problem, which cannot be addressed through a single form of measurement. The application of instruments and approaches is required to value the peculiarity of both the subject and the specific situation in which it occurs, in a comprehensive and systematic manner.

On the other hand, a Permanent Training Program in Sports Psychology must be established for coaches, which is directed continuously and is related to the preparation in sports psychology content and its incorporation into training plans, with the objective of promoting a positive state of mind in athletes, before and during official competitions, since currently there is no training plans for coaches in this regard.

It is appropriate to limit the work carried out by some coaches; However, the people who occupy these roles are generally graduates of the area of Physical Education, who do not receive specific training in sports training and even less in the field of psychological preparation. For this reason, there must be a training policy that emanates from the governing body, which standardizes, systematizes and guides the objectives to be met and the specific contents in sports preparation and of course, in the construct that this research addresses, which is sports preparation (state of mind).

Presentation of the emerging theory (Results)

The Mood Assessment: An Ontomethodological Construction from the Praxeology of Swimming Coaches, presents its bases, rooted and founded in the second and first level categories that have been generated and developed in the research.

Likewise, it takes strength and consistency in the Theory of Emotion, in which Moltó et al. (1999) points out that emotions are complex multifactorial phenomena that affect subjective experience, physiological activation and individual behavior.

In the same way, Plutchick’s wheel of motions (1987) is used, which considers that emotional behavior, along with all the physiological changes that it entails, is fundamental for survival, having eight different purposes: protection, destruction, reproduction, reintegration, affiliation, rejection, exploration and orientation. All these aspects are necessary to evaluate the swimmer’s state of mind.

In this sense, it is related to the research carried out by Lazarus (2000), Skinner and Brewer (2002), Ruiz and Hanin (2003), De la Vega et al. (2008) and Borges (2016), who maintain that mood can influence different aspects of sports performance.”

Likewise, Arruza (1998), Devonport (2005) and López (2006) affirm that mood is a construct belonging to the emotional sphere, which directly affects the way in which the athlete perceives and faces real situations in competitions. Important research references (PhD thesis) were found in Spain that are related to the present research, such as the works of: Arroyo (2015) and Borges (2016).

It determined that the levels of anxiety and self-confidence vary, depending on the subsequent result of competition and the fundamental role that affective manipulation has in relation to sports results in competition. They also made an adaptation of the POMS tool to the context of a certain sport and to the particular circumstances of a region.

In the aspects of concentration and self-confidence of the subject, the doctoral study of González (2015) and Sánchez (2017), are relevant since they obtain successful results in relation to having a positive state of mind, González using the mindfulness technique (full consciousness) while Sánchez use the activation of “self-confidence” in the athlete.

In that sense, the Mood Assessment: An Ontomethodological Construction from the Praxeology of Swimming Coaches, is jointly based on Transdisciplinarity, because it addresses the needs coming from the various challenges that arise within the context of individuals with different types of personality, social status, among others, facilitating their understanding, with the intention of overcoming negative factors such as: pressure, anxiety, depression, melancholy, anger, hostility, fatigue, confusion, and fear.

Furthermore, bases are founded on Multidisciplinarity, since in High Competition Sports, there must be multidisciplinary teams that are focused on enhancing the athlete’s capabilities, and therefore, there is an interaction of several disciplines in parallel (coaches, sports doctors, sports methodologists, leaders, specialists in areas such as physiology, biomechanics, psychologists, among others), whose purpose is to plan and work in a comprehensive and continuous manner towards the development of the athlete’s physical and mental capabilities.


Within the framework of the foundations of the emerging theory developed for the Mood Assessment “An Ontomethodological Construction from the Praxeology of Swimming Coaches”, it has certain characteristics that enhance its Ontological foundation. Among its own characteristics, we can mention: flexible, reflective, continuous, relevant, investigative, creator of new situations, monitoring in action, inclusive, participatory, preventive, multimethodical, multidisciplinary in the interaction of professional, sports and social actors, involved in the action for the evaluation of the state of the athletes’ morale.

Likewise, it is classified as a set of tools and techniques for measurement and relevant action in order to face official events with full preparation and minimize any variation that may occur in athletes that may alter their mood, which may cause the expected results to not be reached.

Based on the results obtained, the interpretation made to the emerging theory is based on the visions that characterize this construct, among which they can be described as:

The Conceptual Vision is considered as a basis for reaching the Ontological understanding and recognition of what “Mood Measurement” itself is, in this way, by having clarity of what it is, the orientation, purposes, activities, scope, tools and techniques in the context where it will be developed.

The Preventive Vision reasoned as the action that every human being can prevent anomalies and symptoms in the emotional state of the athlete since some emotions associated with melancholy, sadness, and anger can become depression, and violent actions (anger), that generate mental health problems in the athlete psyche. It is important to mention that a highly competitive athlete is subjected to many pressures (internal and external variables) before and during the competition.

The Coach’s Vision, consider him as the person he is: counselor, organizer, planner and evaluator of the sporting action since he is the main person responsible for the sports preparation of the athlete, therefore, he must have the appropriate training and education to attend to highly competitive athletes, coupled with a disciplinary workgroup (which in the current context does not apply) that must interact to provide comprehensive care to individuals.

The Methodological Vision aimed at taking different routes and paths to address the situations presented, depending on the type of emotions, or combination of different emotions that can alter the mood of the subject. It is necessary to mention that each athlete must be attended to in a particular way since the personality of each subject is different. In addition, different and varied forms of evaluation (tools and techniques) can be applied to mood. And in this particular, swimming is an individual sport.

It is necessary to point out that the mood assessment must be considered a complex and multifactorial problem, which cannot be addressed by a single measurement instrument or a specific tool. Instruments and approaches that assess the peculiarity of both the subject and the specific situation, in which it occurs holistically, are considered.

The Praxeological Vision, which is oriented and based on the reflection of the coach’s work, through his years of experience, within the empirical and scientific, for the implementation of the different actions and activities planned based on the present needs in the population to be served, taking into consideration that the Mood Assessment should be used according to the principle of individuality existing in each person, and taking into consideration that the tests selected in this study are of an individual nature, which are represented in the following graph:

mood visions


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